DOI 10.14707/ajbr.200087

Multigroup Analysis using SmartPLS:
Step-by-Step Guidelines for Business Research

DOI 10.14707/ajbr.200087

Jun-Hwa Cheah
School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Ramayah Thurasamy
School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

Mumtaz Ali Memon
NUST Business School, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad Pakistan

Francis Chuah
Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Hiram Ting
Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management, UCSI University, Malaysia
College of Business, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Philippines


Multigroup Analysis (MGA) using partial least squares path modelling (PLSPM) is an efficient approach to evaluate moderation across multiple relationships in a research model. This editorial explains the importance and the usage of MGA, especially when a study intends to understand heterogeneity effects (i.e., cross-cultural or gender differences) in a business research. We provide step-by-step guidelines to perform MGA using SmartPLS 3.3.2, including the assessment of measurement invariance using the measurement invariance of composite models (MICOM) procedure. We believe that this editorial will enable researchers and postgraduate students to conduct MGA with confidence to draw meaningful insights from the data and examine the differences across the groups under investigation.

Keywords: Measurement Invariance, Multigroup Analysis, Partial Least Squares Path Modelling, PLSPM

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